Saturday, August 6


Hello all,

In this post we will discuss various technical questions (Computer Science) and answers asked in KERALA PSC examinations like computer programmer, computer science lecturer etc.
Hope this will be helpful. :)

The questions were asked in Programmer (145/2015) post.

1. SCSI stand for :
(A) Small Computer Systems Interface
 (B) Simple Component Systems Interface
(C) Simple Computer Systems Interface
(D) Small Component Systems Interface

Answer A
·         SCSI stands for  Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
·         It is a set of  interface standards for attaching printers, disk drives, scanners and other peripherals to computers.
·         SCSI is pronounced as "skuzzy"

2. Which of the following is a logical extension of multiprogramming?
(A) Multi processing
(B) Multitasking
(C) Real time processing
(D) Distributed processing

Answer B
Remember these terms:
  • One or more programs reside in main memory.
  • Only one job is executed at a time.
  • When current job is blocked or terminated next job is picked.
  • Extension of  multiprogramming.
  • Multiple jobs are executed at same time by switching between them.
  • More than one physical processor is present.
  • At a time more than one program get CPU for execution
Allows multiple threads to run at same time.
Many users can access at same time.
Real-time processing
A processing system that needs to be completed within a fixed time frame. Real-time processing does not have to be fast
Eg: traffic lights, car engine control
Distributed computing
components are located on networked computers and they communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages

3. Which among the following is not an example of a Java wrapper class?
(A) Char 
(B) Integer
(C) Boolean
(D) Byte

Answer A
Wrapper class in java provides the mechanism to convert primitive into object and object into primitive.
Autoboxing: convert primitive to object
Unboxing: Convert object to primitive
Java has eight wrapper classes: Boolean, Character,  Byte, Short, Integer, Long,     Float and Double

4. Which one of the following is not an ACID property?
 (A) Atomicity
(B) Consistency
 (C) Isolation
(D) Dependency Preservation

Answer D

A DBMS should obey ACID properties to make the transactions correct.
ACID properties stand for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability
ACID property
Responsibility of
Either all tasks of the transaction are completed in the database, or none are.
Recovery manager /Transaction manager
Execution of a transaction must preserve the consistency of the database.
Eg: if a faulty money transfer program credits an amount less than it debited, the DBMS cannot detect it.
Users/ user programs.

Each transaction will be executed as if it is the only transaction in the system.
Concurrency control
The database should hold all its latest updates even if the system fails.
Recovery manager

5. Which among the following sorting method is also known as Bucket sorting?
(A) Radix sort
(B) Heap sort  
(C) Merge sort
(D) Quick sort

Answer A:
·         The initial pass of both RadixSort and BucketSort is exactly the same.
·         The elements put in buckets of incremental ranges (e.g. 0-9, 10-19, ... 90-99)
·         In the next pass, however, BucketSort sort these 'buckets' and appends sorted buckets into one array. However, RadixSort appends the buckets without further sorting and 're-buckets' it based on the second digit of the numbers.
·         Hence, BucketSort is more efficient for 'Dense' arrays,
·         RadixSort can handle sparse arrays well.

6. Which one of the following key is called the minimal super key?
 (A) Candidate key
 (B) Super key
(C) Primary key
(D) None
Answer A
•           Candidate key: A set of fields that can uniquely identify a tuple in a relation.
•           Super-key: A set of fields in which at least one member is a candidate key.
•           Primary key: One of the candidate keys which administrator has been selected to identify a tuple.

Unique key: The fields should not have duplicate values in same table. It can have null values.

Saturday, February 13

RPC Sample code in Java

Hello friends,
In this post we will see how RPC (Remote Procedure Call) mechanism can be implemented in Java.
RMI (Remote Method Invocation)  is the special mechanism to do  RPC in Java. RMI is the java flavor of RPC in other languages, but core concept is still same!

The main Idea is summarized as below:

 In this example, we make a server ( to receive input text from client application and replies how many characters it received.

Server Side:
  • Create a remote interface. (
  • Create a separate java file to implement the remote interface. (
  • Register the interface in RMI registry (bind with any name eg: myRMIService)
Client Side:
  • In client code, through interface name (in our case myRMIService) create a "fake remote" object reference of server within client. (
  • Through this reference access the server methods / services

Let us have a detailed look on code:


  1. import java.rmi.*;
  2. public interface MyInterface extends Remote
  3. {
  4.  public String countInput(String input)throws RemoteException;   
  5. }

  • It simply says about a remote service to accept a string input and gives string output.
  • Line no 4  insists that any code implementing this interface should have countInput method.

  1. import java.rmi.*;
  2. import java.rmi.server.*;
  3. public class RMIServer extends UnicastRemoteObject implements MyInterface
  4.     public RMIServer()throws RemoteException
  5.     { 
  6.         System.out.println("Remote Server is running Now.!!"); 
  7.     }    
  8. public static void main(String arg[])
  9.     try{ 
  10.         RMIServer p=new RMIServer();
  11.         Naming.rebind("rmiInterface",p);
  12.     }  
  13. catch(Exception e)
  14. { System.out.println("Exception occurred : "+e.getMessage()); } 
  15. }

  16.     @Override
  17.     public String countInput(String input) throws RemoteException 
  18.     {
  19.     System.out.println("Received your input "+ input+"  at server!!");
  20.         String reply;
  21.         reply="You have typed "+ input.length() +"  letters!!";
  22.         return reply;
  23.     }
  24. }
  • Line 3 says we are going to implement MyInterface interface
  • Line 13 says we register this service with name rmiInterface. Any client can access the services from this class using this name.
  • Line 19-27 implements the methods offered by interface.
  1. import java.rmi.*;
  2. import*; 
  3. public class RMIClient
  4. {   
  5.     public static void  main(String args[])
  6.     { 
  7.         try
  8.       { BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(; 
  9.       MyInterface p=( MyInterface)Naming.lookup("rmiInterface");
  10.         System.out.println("Type something..."); 
  11.         String input=br.readLine(); 
  12.         System.out.println(p.countInput(input)); 
  13.             }
  14.         catch(Exception e) { 
  15.             System.out.println("Exception occurred : "+e.getMessage());
  16.         }
  17.     } 
Line 9:  Looking for the remote service using the name!
Line 12: Accessing the service using the remote object.


Compile the java files.

Run remote object registry  called  rmiregistry. It is used by RMI servers on the same host to bind remote objects to names.

Run the Server class.

Run the client class. You can see it is prompting for input

Type some text
Input is received by remote server

Client receives reply from remote server

Hope this post was useful!!

Feel free to post your suggestions and comments!

Sunday, August 2


Hello reader,
In this post we will discuss briefly about famous women who contributed to Renaissance in Kerala . Hope it will be useful. 

Parvati Nenmenimangalam
Activist for the social reform of the Namboothiri women.
Parvathy Nilayangod, Parvathy Manazhi, Arya Pallam and Neeli Mangalass were other famous women activists worked for Nambooothiri women.

Lalithambika Antharjanam
author and social reformer; novel, Agnisakshi (1976) won the Kendra Sahitya Akademi Award and Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award in 1977
Autobiography : Aathmakadhakkoru Aamukham.

Leader of  Karivalloor Struggle.

The leading lady of the Tholviraku Samaram.

Accamma Cheriyan  :
Leader in the agitation against C.P.Ramaswamy Aiyyar. Organized  a mass rally from Thampanoor to the Kowdiar Palace of the Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma.
Organized the Desasevika Sangh (Female Volunteer Crops).
 Mahatma Gandhi named her as the Jhansi of Travancore.

Kaumudi Teacher
Activist of Bhoodaan movement.

A.V.Kuttimalu Amma
Freedom fighter  who  went  to  jail  with  her  two  month  old  bay due to participation in the civil disobedience movement. She was the Director of Mathrubhumi.

Margaret Pavamani:
President of the Kerala Mahila Desa Sevika Sangham; an organization for carrying on nationalist work and serving the cause of women.

Thottekkattu Madhavi Amma:
President of the first exclusive women session of the NSS in 1929.

Koothattukulam Mary :
Freedom fighter; Veteran CPI Leader; Autobiography: Kanaleriyum Kalam.

Lalitha Prabhu:

Famous activist of Kerala Mahila Desa Sevika Sangh'. Participated in disobedient movement. British govt imprisoned her and ordered to surrender all jewel including Thali.

Anna Chandy :
The first female judge in India and also the first woman in India to become a high court judge.  Autobiography : -Atmakatha

Sunday, May 10


Hello reader,
This post discuss about famous leaders of Renaissance in Kerala. Details about each leader is given in as brief as possible. Hope it will be useful.


  1. Thycaud Ayya (1814 -1909)
  2. Ayya Vaikundar (1820-1851)
  3. Brahmananda Swami Shivayogi (1852-1929)
  4. Chattambi Swamikal (1853 -1924)
  5. Sree Narayana Guru(1856-1928)
  6. Dr Palpu (1863 -1950)
  7. Ayyathan Gopalan (1863- 1949)
  8. G. P. Pillai (1864–1903)
  9. Ayyankali (1866-1941)
  10. C Krishnan / Mithavadi Krishnan (1867-)
  11. Kumaran Ashan ( 1873 – 1924)
  12. Vakkom Moulavi (1873 -1932)
  13. Moorkkothu Kumaran (1874- 1941)
  14. Poykayil Yohannan /Poyakayil Appachan/ Kumara Guru (1878 -1939)
  15. Mannathu Padmanabhan (1878 - 1970)
  16. Pandit Karuppan (1885- 1938)
  17. T. K. Madhavan (1885—1930) 
  18. K P Keshava Menon (1886-1978) 
  19.  K Kelappan (1889-1971)
  20. VT Bhattatiripad (1896 -1982)
  21. A K Gopalan (1904-1977)
  22. P Krishnapillai (1906 - 1948)
  23. Kuriakose Elias Chavara(1805 - 1871)
  24. Mampuram Thangal (1752-1845)
  25. Sahodaran Ayyappan (1889-1968)
  26. Pampady John Joseph(1887-1940)
  27. Makthi Thangal (1847-1912) 
  28. C V Kunjuraman (1871- 1949) 
  29. Velukkutty Arayan (1894-1969)
  30. Kuroor Neelakandan Nambhoothirippad (1896- 1981) 
  31. T R Krishna swami Iyer (1890 -1935)
  32. Swami Ananda Theerthan (1905 - 1987)

Thycaud Ayya (1814 -1909)

  • Guru of Ayya Vaikundan, Sri Narayana Guru , Chattampi Swamikal and Ayyankali.
  • Born in Madras
  • His original name was Subharayan.
  • First social reformer. He started "Panthibhojanam" (inter-dining) in Kerala
  • Famous saying: "intha ulakathile oru jaathi oru matham oru kadavul"
  • Founder of famous ” Saiva Prakasha Sabha” of chalai,Trivandrum  .

Ayya Vaikundar (1820-1851)
Worked for the upliftment of the Dalit Hindus.
He is referred to as Sampooranathevan (Mudi sodum Perumal), a deva (a deity) according to his followers.

Founder of Samathwa Samajam, a reform movement for nadar community.

Brahmananda Swami Shivayogi (1852-1929)
Founded the Ananda Maha Sabha and Anandamatham (religion of bliss)
Founded the Asramam  at Alathur in Palghat district
Condemned  caste barriers, penance,  pilgrimages,  idol  worship etc.
Works: Mokshapradipam, Anandasutram

Chattambi Swamikal (1853 -1924)

  • Nair reformist
  • Born in Kannammola, Trivandrum.
  • Real name was Kunjan pillai.
  • Literary works: Advaita Chintha paddhathi, Vedadikara Nirupanam, Pracheena Malayalam, Vedaantha Saaram etc
  • Sanyasi disciples: Narayana Guru , Neelakanta Therthapada, Theerthapada Parmahamsa
  • Quotation: The whole universe is one mind. Between mind and mind there is no vacuum
  • Swamikal died at Panmana, Kollam. Chattambi swami memorial is also at Panmana.

Sri Narayana Guru(1856-1928)

  • Father of Kerala Renaissance
  • Born in Chempazhanthy in an Ezhava family (Vayalvarathu Veedu).
  • The  parents  of  Sree  Narayana  Guru  were Madanasan and Kuttiyamma.
  • He met Chattampi Swamikal at Aniyur temple near Chempazhanthy.
  • Erected a temple to Shiva at Aruvippuram  in 1888. Last temple consecrated by Guru is at kalavancode, Alappuzha.
  • S.N.D.P Yogam was founded in 1903 and Guru became the life time President and Kumaranasan as Secretary.
  • The Vavoottuyogam started at Aruvippuram is considered as the predecessor of S.N.D.P. Yogam
  • ‘Atmopadesh Satakam’’, ‘‘Nirvriti Panchakam’’, ‘‘ Darsanamala’’,  ‘ Jatimeemamsa ,‘Ardhanareeswara Sthothram’ , "Daiva Dasakam","Gajendra moksham vanchippattu" etc are the major litrerary works of Guru
  • Guru  founded  Sarada  temple  at Varkala in 1915 and founded the Advaitasrama at Aluva on the banks of Periyar.
  • Tagore met Guru at his ashram in Sivagiri in November 1922. Kumaranasan was the translator of their conversation.
  • Gandhiji visited Guru at Sivagiri in 1925.
  • Consecrated a mirror,with the message “Om shanti”, in a temple in Kalavankode.
  • His famous  saying was  “One  Caste, one Religion, one God for man” (gave at advaitasrama).
  • Anandatheertha swamikal was the last sanyasi disciple of swamikal.
  • Died in Sivagiri, Varkala.
  • Only Keralite whose birthday and death anniversary are observed as holidays.

Dr Palpu (1863 -1950)
"Political father" of Ezhavas.
Born in Petta , Trivandrum
Palpu was the third signatory to the Malayali Memorial  in 1891.

Ayyathan Gopalan (1863- 1949)
Gopalan was born in Thalassery.
He started the Kozhikode branch of Brahmosamaj in 1898.
He also founded Chandavarkar Elementary School in Kozhikode to encourage education among Dalits.
He was later honored with the title 'Rao Sahib'.

Barrister G. P. Pillai (1864–1903)

Govindan Paramaswaran Pillai, commonly known as Barrister G. P. Pillai, was born in Pallippuram, Thiruvananthapuram, India, in an aristocratic Nair family.

The first person from Thiruvananthapuram to pass the Barrister examination.
He played a major role in the formation of Malayali Memorial in 1891.
He established the first English language newspaper in South India, the Madras Standard.
He wrote many articles against the oppressive rule of Travancore Diwan CP Ramaswami Iyer.
Ayyankali (1866-1941)

  • Pulaya reformer.
  • Born in Venganoor, Thiruvanantapuram
  • Advocated  for the  right for Pulayas to  walk  along the public roads in Travancore
  • In 1907 he founded the Sadhu Jana Paripalana Yogam, which later became Pulaya Maha Sabha
  • Gandhiji visited Ayyankali in1934 and called him "Pulaya raja".
  • He was nominated to Srimulam Prajasabha in 1910 and remained in office for 25 years.
  • He was the first person from depressed classes to be nominated to Tranvancore legislative Assembly.
  • Leader of first strike of Agriculture labourers in Travancore.
C Krishnan / Mithavadi Krishnan (1867-)

Started a newspaper called Mithavaadi ("Reformist") which got name as the "Bible" of the socially depressed.

Active leader of SNDP.

He was the main organiser of the Thali Road Strike against various social prejudices.

After converting to Buddhism, he campaigned to convert the Ezhavas to Buddhism. As part of it, he started Mahabodhi Buddha Mission in Kozhikode. He conducted Maha Buddha Conference in 1925 at Kozhikode. A Buddha temple was also built by him.

He was against the Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi. He wanted the freedom of the oppressed classes to be attained before the nation achieved freedom.

Kumaran Ashan ( 1873 – 1924)
Got title as MAHAKAVI from madras university. Kumaranasan was the only poet in Malayalam who became mahakavi without writing a mahakavyam.
Disciple of Sri Narayana Guru.
Served as SNDP Secretary
Worked in Vivekodayam Newspaper.
Joseph Mundassery called him as "Viplavathinte Sukra nakshtaram".
Redemeer was the name of boat which caused death of ashan

Vakkom Moulavi (1873 -1932)
Founder and Publisher of Swadeshabhimani, Muslim Scholar, Social leader and reformer.
Father of Muslim Renaissance
Publications:The Muslim 1906 ,Al-Islam(1918) and Deepika(1931).

Moorkkothu Kumaran (1874- 1941)started publishing an educational journal named 'Vidyalayam' and was also the first editor of 'Deepam' magazine
Poykayil Yohannan /Poyakayil Appachan/ Kumara Guru (1878 -1939)
Born in Eraviperoor, Pathanamthitta.
Famous Dalit activist, poet and founder of Pratyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha(PRDS): founded in1909)

Mannathu Padmanabhan (1878 - 1970)
Founded Nair Service Society 1n 1914
Born in Perunna, Changanacherry.
First president of Travancore Devaswam Board.
Involved in Vaikom Satyagraha, Guruvayoor Satyagraha, Indian National Congress and Vimochana Samaram
He was honored with the title Bharata Kesari by the President of India
Mannam Memorial is located in changanacherry.
Sardar KM Panikker praised him as "Madan Mohan Malaviya of Kerala."

Autobiography : Ente Jeevitha smaranakal

Swami Vagbhatananda (1885-1939)
Founder of the Atmavidya Sangham,  a group of professionals and intellectuals who sought change.
Born in Thiyya community.

Sivayoga Vilasam is the famous magazine started by vagbhatananda.
""Awake remember the creator Arise and fight against injustice"" -- was the message printed in front page of the magazine

Pandit Karuppan (1885- 1938)
Known as Lincoln of Kerala.
Born in Cheranallor, ernakulam in Dheevara community.
His famous work Jaathi kummy,
'Balakalesham' and 'Udyanavirunnu' were against untouchability..
Kerala Varma Valiya Koi Thamburan conferred the title of "Vidwan" in 1913.
Kochin Maharaja gave title as "Kavithilakan".

Founder of Araya Samajam.

T. K. Madhavan (1885—1930)


Social reformer, journalist and active member of Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana (SNDP)
Involved in Vaikkom Sathyagraha.
He met Gandhi at Tirunelveli, and persuaded him to  support vaikkom sathyagraha.
A monument was raised in his honor at Chettikulangara.

K P Keshava Menon (1886-1978)

He was born in Tharoor village of Palakkad as the grandson of the Maharajah of Palghat and as the son of Bhiman Achan.
He was a member of the Home Rule League under Annie Besant.
He was the founder of Mathrubhumi, a popular daily newspaper which earned the second place in circulation in Kerala.

K Kelappan (1889-1971)

K. Kelappan was a founding member and president of Nair Service Society.
He is also known as Kerala Gandhi.
After independence he left the Congress Party and joined the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party and was elected to Parliament from the

Ponnani Lok Sabha seat in 1952.
He worked for unification of Kerala into a new linguistic state.

VT Bhattatiripad (1896 -1982)
Key figure in removing castism and conservatism from the Namboothiri community.

Famous Work: Adukkalayilninnum arangathekku
Autobiography: kannerum Kinavum.

A K Gopalan (1904-1977)
Ayillyath Kuttiari Gopalan , popularly known as A. K. Gopalan or AKG, was an Indian communist leader and first leader of opposition in India.
His autobiography In the Cause of the People has been translated into many languages. His other works include For Land, Around the World, Work in Parliament, and Collected Speeches, all in Malayalam.

P Krishnapillai (1906 - 1948)
Kerala's First Communist, Founder of the Communist movement in Kerala.
In 1931 he became the first non Namputhiri Brahmin (he was from Nair Community of Kerala) to ring the temple bell of the Guruvayoor temple.

Kuriakose Elias Chavara(1805 - 1871)

  • Born in kainakari, Kuttanad
  • Beatified     8 February 1986, Kottayam by Pope John Paul II
  • Canonized :23 November 2014, Rome by Pope Francis
  • Major shrine :St. Joseph's Syro-Malabar Dayra Church, Mannanam, Kottayam
  • He played a major role in educating the people of the lower ranks of society.
  • Founder of Nasrani Deepika 1846 from  St Joseph Press, the first Malayali press.
  • In 1864, while he was serving as the Vicar General of Syrian Catholics, he ordered to start a school along with every church (palli) which was successful in making free education available for everyone. Thus schools in Kerala came to be known as pallikudam.
  • He founded an Indian religious congregation for men, now known as the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate. (CMI)
  • He founded, the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel, the first religious congregation for women in 1866 (CMC)

    Mampuram Thangal (1752-1845)
     Yemeni Islamic scholar who settled at Mambaram
    Inspiration behind major mophla outrages like Eranad riot (1836 , 1837), Paruthan Riot

    Sahodaran Ayyappan (1889-1968)

    Followers of Sree Narayana Guru.
    Brain behind Yukthivadi journal.
    Founded Sahodara Sangham for Ezhavas and Vidhya Poshini.
    Renaissance leader who became minister in travancore -cochin.
    Started the concept of Misra bhojanam.

    No Caste, No Religion, No God for Human-beings is his famous quote.
    Pampady John Joseph(1887-1940)
    Founder of the socio-religious movement Cheramar Mahajana sabha for Dalits.: 1921

    Joseph said Pulayars were the original inhabitants of Kerala and hence he re changed the caste name to Cheramar - which means the people of Kerala.
    Joseph initiated Sadhujan Dootan, a Magazine, in 1919, in which he wrote inspiring articles.In his famous book Cheruma Boy, Joseph questioned the Syrian Christian's  discrimination against the untouchable Christians

    Makthi Thangal (1847-1912)
    The first Malabar Muslim to write a book in  Malayalam named Kadora Kodaram in year 1884.
    Muslim reformer; supported western education.

    C V Kunjuraman (1871- 1949)
    Born in Kollam.
    Kunjuraman was a journalist, reformer, advocate and writer.
    He was an organiser of Samudaya Parishkara Sabha which took place at Paravoor in 1904.
    He also conducted Matha Parivarthana Prakshobham in 1936.
    He was also the founder of Kerala Kaumudi, one of the major newspapers in Kerala. Ragaparinamam, Ente Sreekovil, Panchavadi  and India Charitra Sangraham are his major books.

    Velukkutty Arayan (1894-1969)
    Founder of Araya mahajana karayogam.
    Participated in Vaikkom Sathyagraham

    Kuroor Neelakandan Nambhoothirippad (1896- 1981)
    He was a reformer and journalist.
    He founded the newpaper Lokamanyan in 1920.
    He was one of the founding directors of Mathrubhumi newspaper.
    He took part in Vaikom Satyagraha.
    He opened the Pavakkulam temple, which used to be managed by his family, to the untouchables during the temple entry movement.

    T R Krishna swami Iyer (1890 -1935)
    Known as untouchable Brahmin.

    Swami Ananda Theerthan (1905 - 1987)
    His real name was Ananda Shenoy.
    He was close to Sree Narayana Guru and worked against casteism.
    He assumed his new name at Sarada temple at Sivagiri in 1928.
    He established Sree Narayana School in Payyannur in 1931.
    He promoted intercast-marriage through the Jathinashini Sabha, founded in 1933

    How was the post?? Was it Informative? Wanna add anything? feel free to comment.!! :)
I am grateful to all readers who pointed out small bugs in this article and made it more refined. :)


Saturday, May 9

RENAISSANCE IN KERALA : Social welfare schemes and Measures.

Hello Reader,

In this post we  discuss about  various social welfare schemes and measures launched by Government of India.


  1. Integrated Child development Scheme  ICDS (1975)
  2. Rural-Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)  -1983
  3. Jawahar rozgar yojana (1989)
  4. National Rural Development Programme (NRDP)  1992
  5. Mahila Samridhi Yojana(1993)
  6. Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana  PMRY  - 1993
  7. Indira Awas Yojana IAY (1996)
  8. Balika Samriddhi Yojana (1997)
  9. Kudumbashree (1998)
  10. Antyodaya Anna Yojana(2000)
  11. Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana(2001)
  12. valmiki ambedkar awas yojana (2001)
  13. National food for work Programme( 2004)
  14. Bharat Nirmaan (2005)
  15. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005)
  16. Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana: PMAGY (2009)

Integrated Child development Scheme  ICDS (1975)

  • To provide food, preschool education, and primary healthcare to children under  6 years of age and their mothers through anganavadi centers.
  • For nutritional purposes ICDS provides 300 kcal (with 8-10 grams of protein) every day to every child below 6 years of age.For adolescent girls it is up to 500 kcal with up to 25 grams of protein everyday.

Rural-Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP)  -1983

 To guarantee employment to at least one member of every landless household up to 100 days in a year ;
 creating durable assets for strengthening the infrastructure so as to meet the growing requirements of the rural economy.

Jawahar rozgar yojana (1989)

  • To provide 90-100 days employment.
  • implemented at end of Seventh Fifth year plan
  • Central state contribution was in 80:20 ratio.
  • Combination of NREP (National Rural Employment Program) and RLEGP (Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program).

National Rural Development Programme (NRDP)  1992
NRDP is managed by a team of professionals from NGO background  striving to achieve excellence in NGO service delivery.

Mahila Samridhi Yojana(2 october 1993)

  • With the objective of providing economic security to the rural women.
  • the rural women of 18 years of above age can open their saving account in the rural post office of their own area with a minimum Rs. 4 or its multiplier.
  •  On the amount not withdrawn for 1 year, 25% of the deposited amount is given to the depositor by the government in the form of encouragement amount(max 300 Rs.)
  • Stopped in 1997.

Prime Minister's Rozgar Yojana  PMRY  - 1993

  • self-Employment to learned jobless Youth in the country by starting seven lakhs micro ventures.
  • Age: Between eighteen to forty years , Permanent occupant of the region for minimum of three 3 years Document such as Ration Card.

Indira Awas Yojana IAY (1996)

A social welfare programme to provide housing for the rural poor.
Under the scheme, financial assistance worth Rs.70,000/- in plain areas and Rs.75,000/ in difficult areas.
The houses are allotted in the name of the woman or jointly between husband and wife.
cost shares between the Central Government and the State Government in the 75%:25% ratio

Balika Samriddhi Yojana (1997)

  •  To change negative family and community attitudes towards the girl child at birth and towards her mother.
  •     To improve enrolment and retention of girl children in schools.
  •     To raise the age at marriage of girls.
  •     To assist the girl to undertake income generating activities
100% central sponsered
    Girls born after 15th August 1997 to families living below the Poverty Line are eligible for this scheme.
    A maximum of two daughters in a family can benefit from this scheme.
    The scheme will pay annual scholarships into the girl’s account, starting at INR 300 (when the girl is in Class 1) to INR 1000( when the girl in Class 10).
    The girl will receive the money on attaining 18 years of age, provided she is not married.

    I-III Rs.300/- per annum for each class
    IV Rs.500/- per annum
    V Rs.600/- per annum
    VI-VII Rs.700/- per annum for each class
     VIII Rs.800/- per annum
     IX-X Rs.1,000/- per annum for each class

Samagra Awas Yojana   SAY  1998

 Easy access to sanitation, drinking water and waste disposal

Kudumbashree (1998)

  • Female oriented poverty reduction scheme
  • Launched at Kottakkunnu in malappuram by Prime minister A B Vajpayee.
  • The largest women movement in Asia with a membership of 41 lakhs representing equal number of families.

Antyodaya Anna Yojana(2000)

  • It was launched by NDA government in 25 December 2000.
  • It is on the look out for the 'poorest of the poor'  by providing them 35 kilograms of rice and wheat at Rs.3 & Rs.2 per kg. respectively.
  • 1.5 crore families are benefited

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana(2001)
Aims to provide employment and food to people in rural areas who lived below the poverty line.
Combination of Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and Jawahar Samridhi Yojana (JGSY).

valmiki ambedkar awas yojana (2001)
 facilitating the construction and up-gradation of dwelling units for urban slum dwellers living below the poverty line without adequate shelter.

National food for work Programme(14 November 2004)

 The programme is open to all rural poor who are prepared to do manual, unskilled labour. It is implemented as a centrally-sponsored scheme. Food grains are provided to the States[clarification needed] free of cost.The transportation cost, handling charges, and taxes on foodgrains will, however, be the responsibility of the States.
Now that the NREGA is in force, the NFFWP will be subsumed within this programme

Bharat Nirmaan (2005)

For creating basic rural infrastructure.
It comprises projects on irrigation, roads (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana), housing (Indira Awaas Yojana), water supply (National Rural Drinking Water Programme), electrification (Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana) and telecommunication connectivity.

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (2005)

  • Later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act" (or, MGNREGA)
  • Aims to provide at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household
  • whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.
  • If work is not provided within 15 days of applying, applicants are entitled to an unemployment allowance.
  • In its World Development Report 2014, the World Bank termed it a "stellar example of rural development".

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana: PMAGY (2009)
 for the development of villages having a higher ratio of scheduled castes.
  launched by Union Social Justice and Empowerment Minister Mukul Wasnik

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